Although there are a number of writers in the area of communication within groups, many focus at a strategic view of an organisational level. There seems to be agreement on the types of communication, (for example, Tukianen 2001, Varey and White 2000, Kelly 2000 and Gröf 2001) but from differing views. Tukianen (2001) creates a model to plan and develop communication in organisations, but does not take into account non-verbal aspects of communication, such as body language or intonation patterns of speech. The views of Varey and White (2000) and Gröf (2001) both look at internal and external organisation communication, the first from the view of the stakeholders and the latter from the view of corporate values. Kelly (2000) does not take cultural values into accounts when suggesting how to improve organisation communication, but agrees with Gröf (2001) in utilising leadership to improve organisational communication.
The position of power in an organisation can be gained from a number of methods. There are a number of writers discussing issues of power. Whilst writers agree in principle, on the elements of power, (for example Schein 1999, South Western College 2000, Handy 1999, Silbiger 1999) there are differences in their approaches. Schein (1999) discusses the differing empowerment of employees across a „learning dimension‟; organisation driven at one extreme to individual driven at the other. His examples of coercive persuasion are extreme to apply prisoner of war values and attitudes to the working environment. He also suggests for workers to be empowered, employers want employees to feel responsibility – to become „morally‟ involved within the organisation. Silbiger (1999) agrees with Schein in terms of coercive power. He discusses five types of power and briefly suggests methods of maintaining power. Handy (1999) discusses „power‟ and „influence‟ as two separate, Page: 1 of 2 – David A. Smith distinct terms. He discusses „physical coercion‟ within physical power, which agrees with the Schein journal. He also proposes that „position power‟ comes from the role of the person – and this must be underwritten by other position or resource power. Handy investigates „negative power‟ which can happen at all levels of the organisation, that can extend influence both laterally or upwards through the organisation structure. In his book, Handy does not suggest how to acquire power or mentions the effects of misuse of power.
Culture of the company
There have been a number of authors of journals and books that have examined the issue of team-working. With this issue, there seems to be common ground between writers on team-working (for example, Child 1979, Ingram et al. 1997, Drucker 1974 and Iles 1995). Drucker (1974) suggests members can belong to a number of teams, which are able to adapt and experiment. Ingram et al. (1997) agrees and suggests naturally formed teams “can be more effective. The basis of Ingram‟s et al (1997) work is from experience based in the hospitality industry; this is still applicable to the manufacturing sector. Child (1979) takes a differing tack, suggesting where teams breakdown and how to repair the damage. Iles (1995) goes a step further to discuss how teams have differing perspectives, language and standards which can contribute to breakdown in communication and working. Iles‟ (1995) text focuses on very large companies, “managing diversity within teams”.